Impact crusher structure, working principle and features

1. Impact crusher structure

  • 1.1 Impact crushers can be divided into two types according to the number of rotors: single-rotor and double-rotor impact crushers.
  • 1.2 The structure of the single rotor impact crusher (Figure 1) is relatively simple and consists mainly of the rotor 5 (strike plate 4), the impact plate 7 and the machine body. The rotor is fixed to the main shaft. In the cylindrical rotor is equipped with three (or several) strike plate (plate hammer), strike plate and rotor are more rigid connection, and the strike plate is made of wear-resistant high manganese steel (or other alloy steel).
  • 1.3 One end of the impact plate is hinged on the upper body 3 by the suspension shaft, and the other end is supported by the tie bolt on the conical washer of the upper body using the spherical washer, so the impact plate is freely suspended inside the machine. When the non-crushing objects enters impact crusher, the impact plate is subject to a large reaction force, forcing the tie bolt (compression spherical washer) “automatically” back to lift, so that the non-crushing objects discharged to ensure the safety of the equipment, this is the impact crusher safety device. In addition, adjusting the nut above the tie rod bolt can change the size of the gap between the strike plate and the impact plate.
  • 1.4 The body is divided into two parts, upper and lower body, along the axis. The upper body is equipped with inspection holes for maintenance and observation. The lower body is fixed to the foundation with foot bolts. The inner surface of the body is equipped with a protective liner of replaceable wear-resistant material to protect the body from abrasion. The chain curtain installed at the feed opening of the crusher (near the first stage impact plate) is a protective measure to prevent the ore from flying out during the crushing process of the machine.
  • 1.5 Double-rotor impact crushers, depending on the rotor rotation direction and rotor configuration position, are further divided into the following three types (as shown in Figure 2).
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    Impact Crusher

    Impact crushers involve the use of high speed impact rather than compression to crush material. They utilize hinged or fixed heavy metal hammers or bars attached to the edges of horizontal rotating disks. The bars repeatedly strike the material to be crushed. Then the material is thrown against a rugged solid surface which further degrades the particle size. Finally, the material is forced over a discharge grate or screen by the hammers through which the finer particles drop while larger particles are swept around for another crushing cycle until they are fine enough to fall through a discharge grid. This type of crusher is normally used on soft materials such as coal or limestone due to the high wear experienced by the impact hammers, bars and inner surfaces. These crushers are normally employed for secondary or tertiary crushing.