5 types of sand washer working principles and features

Sand washer is a kind of washing equipment for sand and gravel (artificial sand, natural sand), which can make the sand cleaner with higher quality. It is widely used in the construction of sand and gravel quarries, mines, building materials, transportation, chemical industry, water conservancy and hydropower, concrete mixing station and other industries. At present, there are various models of sand washers, the common ones like spiral sand washer, wheel sand washer, rotary drum sand washer, vibrating sand washer, dredging bucket sand washer, etc.

Their working principles and features as follows

1. Spiral Sand Washer

Spiral sand washer is to use the buoyancy effect of water for classifying, with the principle of different specific gravity of solid particles, thus their settling speed in liquid is also different.

The machine rotor adopts the central structure, and the spiral blades are installed on the central shaft, which is connected to the central shaft by the speed reducer for work. The spiral sand washer needs to be installed at an inclination, the lower part of the water tank is surrounded by three sides of the weir plate to form a sedimentation pool, the head of the spiral is immersed in the sedimentation pool, the spiral is driven by the electric motor through the reducer to rotate continuously.

Clean water is fed by the porous plate at the bottom of the sedimentation pool. This spiral sand washer has three functions: cleaning, de-watering and grading.
spiral sand washer

2. Wheel sand washer

The motor drives the impeller slowly through the v-belt, reducer and gears, and the sand enters through the feeding trough, tumbles under the impeller and grinds each other to remove the impurities covering the surface of sand and gravel, and at the same time destroys the water vapor layer covering the sand for dewatering.

At the same time, water is added to form a strong water flow to take away impurities with small specific gravity in time and discharge from the overflow outlet washing trough. The clean sand is taken away by the wheel, and finally the sand is poured into the discharge tank from the rotating impeller, completing the cleaning action of sand and gravel.

Due to the transmission part of the wheel sand washer is isolated from water and sand, so its failure rate is much lower than other common sand washers, it is a good choice for sand washing plant.
wheel sand washer

3. Rotary drum sand washer

It is also called rotary gravel washer. The motor drives the reducer and pinion, which connects with ring gear to drive the cylinder at low speed. Sand and gravels containing mud and powder are fed from the feeding side to enter the rotating drum, they are continuously brought up and thrown down for many cycles, thus sand and gravels are continuously washed by the water in the downward or reverse direction.

The sand and gravels will grind each other, impurities are washed and cleaned by the water. Thus the clean sand and gravels are de-watered and discharged from the discharge side, while the waste water containing sludge flows out through the perforated baffle at the discharge end.

Its working process can be summarized as follows, raw material storage, conveying, cleaning, finished material conveying, and sewage sedimentation for reuse. The rotary sand washer requires large amount of water to produce large capacity clean sand.
rotary sand washer

4. Vibrating sand washer

The machine is composed of upper eccentric block, circular vibration, motor and other structures, and the motor is connected to the screen box vibration for work, and then automatically separated and cleaned.

Vibrating sand washer is mainly for the construction of highways, railroads, bridges, tunnels and other high-standard projects, it is a special equipment used to clean sand and gravel materials, suitable for fine grain size and coarse grain size material washing operations, but it is a more rarely used professional equipment, it has high capacity, less water consumption, but price is relatively higher than other types of sand washers.
vibrating sand washer

5. Dredging bucket sand washer

The front end of the dredging bucket sand washer is a sand storage tank, when the sand is completely immersed in the water, the water and sand are mixed by the operation of the dredging bucket.

In the process of mixing, the sand will be deposited in a larger proportion, and the mud and impurities with small specific gravity are taken away by the water flow as waste water. The sand at the bottom of the water is picked up while the dredging bucket is stirring, the mud and water are controlled cleanly through the water control hole and transported out through the conveyor belt to form a small mountain pile or into the next stage of the sand cleaning device.

The dredging bucket sand washer has reasonable structure, flexible assembly, high output and remarkable water saving.
sand washer
In summary, among the above five types of sand washers, wheel sand washer and spiral sand washer are the most widely used, accounting for about 80%-85% of the market. Both of them have double wheels and double spirals structure for option, which increase the process capacity. The current markets requires cleaner sand in the sand making plant, thus sand washer has become an indispensable equipment, it makes the sand cleaner, also better sales. If you have any questions about the sand washer, please contact us, we will customize the plant according to your site conditions and requirements.

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